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COLLECTION OE.

WILLIAM SCHAUS

© PRESENTER TO THE NATIONAL MUSEUM MCMV

A he a

tal on ae .

BY as ah; thant

THE ANNALS

AND

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY,

INCLUDING

ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, ann GEOLOGY.

BEING A CONTINUATION OF THE ‘ANNALS’ COMBINED WITIT LOUDON AND

CHARLESWORTH’S MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. cd)

CONDUCTED BY

ALBERT C. L. G. GUNTHER, M.A, M.D., Ph.D. F.R.S., WILLIAM CARRUTHERS, Ph.D., F.RS., F.LS., F.G.S., AND

WILLIAM FRANCIS, F.L.S,

eneae | VOL. VII.—EIGHTH SERIESS°?) ay S Colles

PDI II SN

A2Z3O04O

LONDON: PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS,

SOLD BY SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND Co., LD, ; BAILLIERE, PARIS; HODGES, FIGGIS, AND CO. DUBLIN ; AND ASHER, BERLIN,

bony,

“Omnes res creatie sunt divine sapientix et potenti testes, divitie felicitatis human :—ex harum usu donifas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini ; ex ceconomid in conseryatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper sestimata ; 4 veré eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta; malé doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit.”—Linnaus.

“Quel que soit le principe de la vie animale, il me faut qu’ouvrir les yeux pour voir quelle est le chef-d’ceuvre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rappor- tent toutes ses opérations.”—Bruckner, Théorie du Systeme Animal, Leyden, 1767.

eee ee ee ee es» Lhesylvan powers Obey our summons; from their deepest dells The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild And odorous branches at our feet; the Nymphs That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, But seatter round ten thousand forms minute Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock Or rifted oak or cavern deep: the Naiads too Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth faes They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles, Where peril waits the bold adyenturer’s tread, The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, All, all to us unlock their secret stores And pay their cheerful tribute. J. Taytor, Norwich, 188,

ALERE: @ FLAMMAM.

Nag eee

CONTENTS OF VOL. VII.

(KIGHTH SERIES. }

NUMBER 37. Page I. The Anatomy and Classification of the Teleostean Fishes of the Orders Berycomorphi and Xenoberyces. By C. Tarr Reean, M.A. Mielerricale rae raraictrens ts, AIS ernie! AG hielo a Wine ca ake own oes aren © il

Il. The Collections of William John Burchell, D.C.L., in the Hope Department, Oxford University Museum ;— IV. On the Lepidoptera Rhopalocera collected by W. J. Burchell in Brazil, 1825-1830. By kk. G. Josrpu, of Pancoln Callege, Oxtordy, yon gsc scan 55 64 shen ood aids 9

IIL. Descriptions of new Reptiles from the Andes of South America, preserved in the British Museum. By G. A. BouLENGER, Bab sea Nee Ne ay ara bea tak okay Mat Seay ak wai nc Sat ele tu a. se oa ws AiG ooh eee Meee! 19

IV. On some Freshwater HEntomostraca from Egypt and the Noudan. . By Roper Guenny, M.A. (Plate IL.) 2.2... .000cc0e. 25

V. New Species of. Heterocera from Costa Rica—IlV. By Bek CHUM Oe Mies as veins ae die ee ais ihn casio ele winlga saya nveceipe a6" 30

VI. A Synoptical Revision of the Dynastid Genus Lonchotus. yates ERP MALROWW NS) Daarts har a Bits sisi bs anctals po Gopatarp dw sywsievslo a § af 84

VII. Two new Genera of Starfishes. By Wa rer K. FisHer, Stantord, University? @alitormiar :!.). 220405 oils 2 a Saved waeeaael obey: 89

VIII. Description of a new Species of Temnophyllus, Brunn.- Watt. (Orthoptera: Phasgonuride), from the Malay PenInsula. By W. F. Kirsy, F.L.S., F.ELS., late Assistant in Zoological De- partment, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. (PlateIII.) 93

IX. Some new Curculionine from Central and South America, Rye ACER MP LONG Lig Hioces Aon whiten sitanay aig Sales de oeeersyalar eas 0 94

X. New Species of Diploptera in the Collection of the British Museum,—Part III. By Grorrrry MeapE-Watpo, B.A. ..,.,. 98

iv CONTENTS. Page XI. Three new South-African Rodents. By OrpFreip THomas, 113

XII. Diagnoses of new Mammals from the Trengganu Archipelago, East Coast of the Malay Peninsula. By C. Bopen Kuoss ......

XIII. The Anatomy and Classification of the Teleostean Fishes of the Order Iniomi. By C. Tare REGAn, M.A... cece eens 120

XIV. A Description of Venus stimpsoni, Gould, By A.J. JuKkus- Brownkg, B.A., F.R.S., M.M.S. (Plate IV.) ..ceseeseeeereeees 133

XV. Notes on the Lamellicorn Beetles of the Genus Golofa, with Descriptions of Three new Species. By Girpert J. ARRow .... 136

New Book :—A Descriptive Catalogue of the Marine Reptiles of the Oxford Clay. Part I. By Caarites WILLIAM ANDREWS, PRIS. iS sire g co ers aici Sis hae s. ope beens mia ae eae 141

Proceedings of the Geological Society ......... essen eens 142, 143

NUMBER 38.

XVI. Notes from the Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews.— No, XXXII. By Prof. MInrosp, M.D., LL D., F.RS., &c.

(Plates: Vs Vibe). vos ius cS eipioha rasa ie Sines Gini tM eames oid a 145 XVII. New Species of Heterocera from Costa Rica.—V. By

WV. Semana, 2,5: 20S. 5 alae heise yee, Wee suetd wee ~~ ie XVIII. A Synopsis of the Marsipobranchs of the Order Hypero-

arti, ~ By C. Tare ReGan; MA loinc. 320s ids ao alc wt wie 0.0 193 XIX. On the Systematic Position of Macristiwm chavesi. By C.

BATH REGAN? MLGAL, —jheed pigs 5 oorieje Miesereue Otley o a's wees icles een 204 XX. New Asiatic Muride. By O_pFirLp THomMAs.......... 205

XXI. Description of a new Genus of Molossine Bats from West Africa, By Goy Doniman, BeAG oie. cs 6. eee sess seein 210

XXII. Descriptions of Three new Characinid Fishes from South- western Colombia. By G. A. Boutenesr, F.RS. .............. 212

XXII. Entomological Notes from the London School of Tropical Medicine.—No. I. Description of a new Species of Tabanide from

British Guiana. By Soria L. M. Summers, M.A., B.Sc. ...... 213 XXIV. Description of Two new Tetragonopterid Fishes in the British Museum. By Prof. C. H. EIGENMANN ................ 216

XXV. Scorpions and Solifugz collected by Captain S. 8S. Flower in the Anglo-Mgyptian Sudan, By 8S. Hirst ......... Sins 217

ee ——

CONTENTS. Vv

Page New Book :—Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phaleeng in the British Museum, Vol. X. Noctuwide. By Sir Grorcr F, Hampson,

TET fierce le Sines acele> Stele sn Sel «tom's waa ate, oho sec wean e we Leet Pere 2 Proceedings of the Geological Society. ........ eee eee eee e eee 223 Corrections by Major CONNOLLY .........-. 000. cess rete eee e ees 224

NUMBER 389.

XXVI. Descriptions and Records of Bees—XXXIV. By T. D. A. CocKERELL, University of Colorado ...... cece eee e eee eee e ene 225

XXVII. Notes on the Cocoons and Descriptions of Four new Species of the Genus Trichostibas. By EmBrik Stranp, of the ovale Berlin: Zoological MuseuMt.. os... 6.05 nm sce seca ee mene 237

XXVIII. Rhyuchotal Notes—LUI. By W. L. Distant...... 242

XXIX. On the Cirrhitiform Percoids. By C. Tarr Rre@an,

BN Napa e eres HCATTR CK eC SIT tial xc cote.) iene! ot cloak PMP Caue oeideh AS etey ox wse/! owt bro's. 259 XXX. New Species of Heterocera from Costa Rica.—VI. By pS CEVA SEZs pale cette ied opt aloes cgay mi Glau cist erss ab ole Slee « 262 XXXI. Descriptions of some new Species of Heterocera from Tropical South America, and Two new Species of Geometride from West Africa. By Herprrr Druce, F.LS. &c. ....... ee eee 287 XXXII. The Anatomy and Classification of the Teleostean Fishes of the Order Salmoperece. By C. Tare Reean, M.A. .......... 294 Ma HyA TE NGA LUTON teva shal shniatyreestke ee tle)» brrconantoe wtehand ways eal A watt 296 NUMBER 40. XXXIII. Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera.—III. By Rotanp Roa WENA Rt Pecan Ray his, A archaleie Ghar & lv ave va td MR SRD Goo «kaa 297 XXXIV. Descriptions and Records of Bees—XXXV. By T. D. MOOCoOCKHRELL, University of Colorado: 4.5 e032 eqs ndacees aeons 310

XXXV. The Osteology and Classification of the Teleostean Fishes of the Order Microcyprini. By C.Tarr Rucan, M.A. (Plate VIII.) 320

XXXVI. The Classification of the Teleostean Fishes of the Order Synentognathi. By C. Tarz RreGan, M.A. (Plate IX.) ........ 327

-XXXVII. Note on Parasitic Castration in the Earthworm Zum- bricus herculeus. By Icerna B. J. Soias, B.Sc., Newnham College, Peni bieel Cea ae Coe Ae Lhe Male Mk AA SEs Pa veiatal ule ettalslete dd decaale 335

vi CONTENTS.

_ Page XXXVIII. Ona new Marsupial. By Prof. F. Fourstrr and the Hon. WALTER ROTHRCHILD, CHD... nse connie Soto oye bie ye 307 XXXIX. Rhynchotal Notes—LIV. By W. L. Distant ...... 308 XL. New Species of Heterocera from Costa Rica—VII. By BUY SAGDIG pSHEU ites choc a's esas tn,» arm Sire Wloka nim 6 Ween baeperet see es ate wee cher 359

XLI. Descriptions of new Freshwater Tishes discovered by Dr. W. J. Ansorge in Portuguese Guinea. By G. A. BouLENGER,

LDS oid Seo OO ooo oO UO oD ogo co DO MOON Ooo 378 XLII. Description of a new Cichlid Fish from Mashonaland. By G. A. BouLENGSR, F.R.S. 2.0.0... eee een ee eee eee cece nee 377

XLIIT. Description of a new Fish of the Genus Polypterus from Liberia. By G. A. BoULENGER, F.LR.S. «2.0... eee ee cee ee eee ab,

XLIV. On new A‘rican Muride. By OvpFietp THomas .... 878 XLY. A new Vole from Eastern Asia. By OLpFrELD THomAS. . 383

XLVI. Three new Mammals from Dutch New Guinea. By OLDRIEED LHOMAG SH. i Oe st coe sb ole wl eats Fim none fare tals ve areal 384

XLVII. Note on anew Leech (Placobdella egyptiaca) from Egypt. By Wi A: Hanoua, MoAns Fda8. 00:5 i5cc5 sands ahs somes nei 388

XLVIII. On Lamellicorn Beetles belonging to the Subfamilies Ochodeine, Orphnine, Hybosorine, and Troygine. By Grier J.

BNCRUELO) Wists con urs ove oye ese o's Wine tele to Buse roiale mga leo eRe eS ge eae 390 XLIX. On Gammarus campylops, Leach. By AtFrrep O.

Vote aS, ZS Py seat eis tevayerwvalabnia ete arelate theake cual nein tere 597 L. A new African Corethra. By Frep. V. THropaxp, M.A.,

Se AGGe,, aig ais a Bia ye prac fissle actA habekeenahe/le ole, jefe Nebegetna is <a ioreeenaiote 399

LI, A Revision of “A Survey of the Species and Varieties of Pupa, Draparnaud (Jaminia, Risso), occurring in South Africa,” by James Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F'.L.8., and John Henry Ponsonby, nes. by HenrasO: Bornue. ((PISteuXs), “erecta ete oe 401

New Book :—The Amphipoda of Bermuda. By B. W. Kunxer .. 416

NUMBER 41. LIT. On the Structure of Magelona, By Prof. M‘Intosu, F.R.S.,

Gatty .Marine Laboratory, St. Amdrews.).\. 5% o seeiaate Yate lvacten 417 _LUI. On Mammals collected by the Rev. G. T, Fox in Northern Nigeria. «By OLprmenup TmoOMAS 526 maces ati aceb oer es cee bere 457

LIV. Descriptions of Thirty-six new Species of Land and Fresh- water Shells from British Mast Africa, chiefly from Mount Kenia and the neighbouring District. By H. B. Preston, F.Z.S. (Plates pn (RNS RT oe ssa vn te Wap a hos ye ely are we Spee res CONE cc 463

CONTENTS.

LV. Descriptions of Three new Species of Freshwater Fishes from South Africa. By J. D. F. Gircurist, D.Sc., and W. WarpLiaw [IR SBAG Se RES a ON ah Oe Rage

LVI. Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera.—IV. By Row anp E.

|) SE Cn, JS Baal 2 ds oa ee enn re

LVII. Descriptions and Records of Bees —XXXVI. By T.D.A. POCKMEELL. Wmryersitiys Of COlOPATO) scree ooo owlne doe unsere ess

LVIII. A Contribution to our Knowledge of the Oligocheta of Travancore. By Dr. Luzet Coanetrr DE Marrtus, Torino, R, insrOrAoelopico:.. (Pinte XUN yy. vi. oes Sem wien oieik e «| vee pinle ote s exe

LIX. Description of anew Species of the Genus Polytoreutus. SP Dr, Lurat Co@nerri DE Martius, R. Museo Zoologico, Torino .

LX. A new Amphipod Species, Tryphosites allent. By E. W. Sexton, Marine Biological Laboratory, Plymouth. (Plate XIV.).. LXI. New Mammals from Tropical South America. By PURE EOS TU EL ONIN Sy or cnc te orate aor slsy ole eisye: wig sgote aeabcre Ratan oléee os absl ates

LXII. List of Mammals from British East Africa, obtaired by Mr. Robin Kemp and presented to the British Museum by Mr. C. D. Rudd, with additional Notes on Specimens collected and presented by Mr. A. Blaney. Peretvaky By Guy DOELMAN’ ole. cs. eee fen

LXIII. Descriptions of new African Heterocera. By G. T. FS OPENUINE SATE ES RASS Seles vee vices mus we/oepeesliles

NUMBER 42. LXIV. Descriptions of new African Heteroeera. By G. T. Ee ENUNEM AW sD Lusi DA Osreieiaris ofeikiciea vie 2 aisles se acne ties LXV. Rhynchotal Notes—LV. By W. L. Disrant..........

LXVI. Notes from the Entomological Department of the London School of Tropical Medicine.—No. IL. Description of a new Species of Stmulium from the Siamese Hills. By Miss Sopaia L. M. MONEE MEN A ESOC ciaoee dieraitistapans sit el oF 04 ae sveieretyle eget lee ews

LXVII. Some Barnacles of the Genus Scalpellum from Irish Seas. By N. AnnanpaLg, D.Sc., Indian Museum, Calcutta ............

LXVIII. Three new African Rodents. By OLpFirrLp THomas..

LXIX. The Genera of Recent Clypeastroids. By Husperr Lyman Criark, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, U.S.A.

LXX. Three new Mammals from the Lower Amazons. By POPE ro GION DI ET ONPABS Mate ere accyele si ulelele-c c's. Scie tien eo A Ot ale, U4 Sie va) «

-LXXJ. A new Kangaroo from the Northern Territory of Western Australia. By Oinate en) WaOMwage 2 actin ar ableeotece. ;

LXXIi. Upon the Dynamopine, a new Subfamily of Lamelli- gorn Geetles, By Ginpert J. ARROW 2.0... c0c0see500> Sacer

ATT

485

494

518

vill CONTENTS.

Page LXXIII. New Species of Heterocera from Costa Rica.—VII. By IW. SOHAUS) FZ Ya x. atte «+ als dare te ls oi peste es Siem ia 612 LXXIV. Seven new Asiatic Mammals, with Note on the “Viverra fasciata” of Gmelin. By ERNST SCHWARZ ....--..0006 684

LXXY. Six new Fruit-bats of the Genera Macroglossus and Syconycteris. By KNUD ANDERSEN «1... .eceecse eee eeneeeens 641

LXXVI. A new Unstalked Crinoid from Christmas Island. By Austin Hopart CLarK ....-+..« Scho eh seen monet cca geet 644

Jew Book :—Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Schwedischen Zoolo- gischen Expedition nach dem Kilimandjaro, dem Meru und den Umgebenden Massaisteppen, Deutsch-Ostafrikas, 1905-1906,

unter Leitung von Prof. Dr. Yngve Sjéstedt...... Aaric NA TS 646 Proceedings of the Geological Society. ..........sseeeeee ee . 648, 649 Index Graceani ser er ae AES A deena elareinlentior parte siete seen 5 650

PLATES IN VOL. VIL. Puate I, Hoplopteryx affinis. II. Freshwater Entomostraca from Egypt and the Sudan. III. Temnophyllus knighti, Avrdy. IV. Venus stimpsoni, Gould.

Ni vi Nevaya whiteavesi and Cirratulide. VU;

VIII. Goodea atripinnis. IX. Pharyngeals of Synentognathi. X. South African Pupide. a New shells from British East Africa. XIII. Oligocheeta from Travancore. XIV. Tryphosites alleni.

Veo Vol. 7. EIGHTH SERIES. No. 37. ¥g ee

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THE ANNALS

AND

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. [EIGHTH SERIES.]

Meena ceaseane eee per litora spargite muscum, Naiades, et circtim vitreos considite fontes: Pollice virgineo teneros hic carpite flores: Floribus et pictum, dive, replete canistrum. At vos, o Nymphe Craterides, ite sub undas ; Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas Ferte, Dez pelagi, et pingui conchylia suceo.” « Parthenii Giannettasi, Hel. 1.

Noa. JANUARY 1911:

I.—The Anatomy and Classification of the Teleostean Fishes of the Orders Berycomorphi and Xenoberyces. By C. Tate Reaan, M.A.

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.)

[Plate I.]

THe Berycomorphous fishes are a group of considerable interest, for on the one hand they approach the Perches in general structure, and on the other they retain many features of generalization which indicate their relationship to primitive Clupeoids.

The order was well represented in Cretaceous times, and the fossil genera were included in the fourth volume of Dr. Smith Woodward’s Catalogue of Fossil Fishes,’ issued in 1901. The best descriptions and figures of the extinct species are those of W. von der Marck (Paleont. xi. 1863) and of Smith Woodward (Paleontogr. Soc. 1902). Dr. E. C. Starks has given a useful account of the osteology of some of the recent types, with figures of the crania of Polymizia, Beryx, Hoplostethus, Monocentris, and Holo- cenirus (Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxvii. 1904) ; I fully agree with him that the Pempheridze do not pertain to this order, but to the Percomorphi. The skeleton of Holocentrus has been figured by Agassiz (Poiss. Foss. vol. iv.) and that of Beryx by Giinther (‘ Challenger’ Deep-sea Fishes).

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. vii. i

2 Mr. C. T. Regan on the Anatomy and

In the following account both recent and extinct forms are dealt with, and the more important characters of the order and its component families are set forth; three families, Berycopsidee, Diretmide, and Anomalopide, hitherto regarded as of uncertain affinities, are assigned a definite place in the system, and the Melamphaide, until now included in the Berycide, are rejected from the order.

Order BERYCOMORPHI.

Parietals separated by the supraoccipital; nasals large, posteriorly attached to the frontals; opisthotic well-deve- loped, bounded in front by the pro-otic and below by the exoccipital; orbitosphenoid present, united by suture with the alisphenoids, but well separated from the mesethmoid ; a Y-shaped basisphenoid present; a thin-walled auditory bulla, containing a large otolith, formed by the pro-otic, parasphenoid, basi-occipital, exoccipital, and sometimes the opisthotic. Mouth bordered above by the protractile pre- maxillaries ; maxillary articulated with the vomer and attached near its proximal end to the well-developed maxil- lary process of the palatine; one or two supramaxillaries ; lower jaw of dentary, articulare and angulare. First pharyngo- branchial suspensory ; third and fourth ankylosed; lower pharyngeals separate ; three ossified basi-branchials. 4 gills; pseudobranchie ; 7 to 9 branchiostegals. Hyo-palatine and opercular bones normally developed. Vertebral column of solid centra which are co-ossified with the arches ; anterior ribs sessile ; posterior ribs on parapophyses ; hypurals more or less fused and expanded; three epurals (epaxial basalia) and two uroneurals. Post-temporal forked, attached to the eplotic and opisthotic ; usually two post-cleithra on each side ; no mesocoracoid ; pectoral radials four, hourglass-shaped, only the lowest in contact with the hypocoracoid. Air- bladder without pneumatic duct *. Anterior rays of vertical fins spinous ; pelvic fins thoracic or subabdominal, with or without spine and with from 3 to 13 soft rays; caudal fin typically with 19 principal rays, 17 of which are branched (18, with 16 branched, in the Polymixiide).

Family 1. Polymixiide.

Dorsal and anal fins long or moderately elongate, with a few graduated spines and rather numerous soft rays; caudal

* I cannot find a duct in any of the genera I have examined, including Beryx and Holocentrus, which are said to be physostomous.

Classification of some Teleostean Fishes. 3

with 16 branched rays; pelvics subabdominal, 7 or 8 rayed, without spine. Jaws with villiform teeth in bands; teeth on parasphenoid, vomer, palatines, pterygoids, and meso- pterygoids. A pair of hyoid barbels. Upper edge of maxillary slipping under the preorbital and anterior sub- orbitals ; two supramaxillaries, the posterior not overlapping the anterior ; all the suborbitals forming a subocular shelf ; nasals moderately large, separated in front by the premaxillary

Fig. 1.

' 2: Skeleton of caudal fin of Polymixia nobilis (1) and Hoplopteryx affinis (2). n, neural spine ; ’, heemal spine; ep, epaxial basalia (epurals) ; u, uroneurals; hy, hypurals; c, c’, centra.

processes and behind by the ethmoid, to which they are united by suture ; supraoccipital and parietals not overlapped by the frontals, with prominent crests; occipital crest ex- tending to anterior edge of frontals ; alisphenoids separate, bridged by the orbitosphenoid. Hypocoracoids narrowed forwards below; pelvic bones remote from the cleithra. Vertebree 28-34 ; last two centra upturned and anterior uro-

neural united with the penultimate centrum by suture. 1*

4 Mr. C. T. Regan on the Anatomy and

In addition to the recent Polymizia, Lowe, the Cretaceous Platycormus, W. von der Marck, may be placed in_ this family; it has been well described and figured, and shows many important resemblances to the recent genus. ‘The less satisfactorily known Omosoma, Costa, and Pycnosterina, Heck., may be provisionally associated with Platycormus.

Family 2. Berycopside.

Berycopsis elegans, Dixon, from the Chalk of Sussex and Kent, has been fully described and figured by Dr. Smith Woodward. Itis in some respects intermediate between the Polymixiide and Berycide, but is well distinguished from both.

Dorsal and anal fins as in the Polymixiide ; pelvic fins not well known, perhaps as in the Polymixiide; two supra- maxillaries formed as in Berya, the posterior large and sending forward a pointed process above the anterior ; ptery- goid teeth present; occipital and parietal crests terminating above the middle of the orbit; suborbitals narrow, preorbital deep, and maxillary exposed; vertebra at least 26 and per- haps as many as 30.

Family 3. Berycide.

Dorsal and anal with a few graduated spines ; caudal with 17 branched rays; pelvics thoracic, of a spine and 7 to 13 soft rays. Jaws with villiform teeth in bands; teeth on vomer and palatines. Upper edge of maxillary slipping under preorbital and anterior suborbitals ; two supra- maxillaries, the posterior sending forward a pointed process above the anterior; subocular shelf formed by several sub- orbitals, or at least extending the whole length of the second ; nasals moderately large, separated by the premaxillary pro- cesses, but nearly meeting above them anteriorly; supra- occipital and parietals not overlapped by the frontals, with prominent crests which extend forward on the latter to the interorbital region; frontals anteriorly with prominent ridges bordering mucus cavities; alisphenoids united by suture. Hypocoracoids not narrowed forward, reaching the ventral profile and forming a symphysis behind that of the cleithra; pelvic bones embraced by the hypocoracoids and attached to the cleithra above the symphysis. Vertebra 24; no upturned centra, and the anterior uroneural ankylosed with the last centrum.

There are two very distinct genera, viz., Beryz, Cuv., and Hoplopteryx, Agass. ‘The former, with species from the

Classification of some Telcostean Fishes. 5

North Atlantic and Japan, has the dorsal, with IV 13-19 vays, much shorter than the anal, which has III-lV 26-30; the pelvics have I 10-13 iays. The latter includes three recent species from South Australia and New Zealand, in which the dorsal, with VI-VII 12-14 rays, is longer than the anal, which has IV 12-15, whilst the pelvics have I 7 rays. Moreover, the spines are stouter than in Beryz, and the scales are larger and structurally different, being slightly rugose with strongly pectinated edges, instead ot covered with little spines. There are several Cretaceous species of Hoplopteryx ; in the Australian H. affinis, Guiuth., the crests and ridges on the head are arranged exactly as in the Cretaceous H. lewisiensis described and figured by Dr. Smith Woodward. I give a figure of H. affinis, for comparison with the extinct forms (PI. I.).

Family 4. Diretmide.

The type of Diretmus argenteus, Johnson, ia in the British Museum collection ; it is evidently related to the Berycida. The dorsal and anal fins appear to be formed mainly of articulated rays, and probably not more than 3 or 4 are spinous ; the caudal has 17 branched rays ; each pelvic fin is composed of a laminar, oblong ovate, obliquely striated spine and 5 branched rays; (the pelvic spine of Berys is obliquely striated). The scales are small, adherent, spinulose, differing from those of Beryw in that the bases of the spinules are expanded into parallel vertical ridges.

The jaws have narrow bands of villiform teeth, witha series of larger pointed teeth in the lower; the palate is toothless.

The single large supramaxillary -has the form of the posterior supramaxillary of the Berycide ; the nasals are separated by the premaxillary processes; the subocular shelf and the alisphenoids and orbitosphenoids are as in the Berycide. The cranial crests and ridges are as in the Bery- cidee, except that the paired ridges which converge forward from the parietal crests in the latter are now united to form a single median ridge, owing to the narrowness of the inter- orbital region. ‘The thin-walled auditory bulla containing a large otolith can be seen above the gills. The pelvic bones are embraced by the enormously expanded hypocoracoids, which meet in a long symphysis ; this is an exaggeration of the Berycid condition.

Family 5. Trachichthyide.

Dorsal and anal spines few; pelvic fins thoracic, of a spine and 6 soft rays. Jaws and dentition as in the Berycida, but

6 Mr. C. T. Regan on the Anatomy and

vomerine teeth sometimes absent and anterior supramaxillary wanting; a single large supramaxillary, superiorly sending forward a pointed process ; subocular shelf a small or slender process of the second suborbital ; nasals very large, united by suture throughout their length, covering the ethmoid and the premaxillary processes. Frontals, parietals, and supra- occipital, with their ridges and crests, arranged much as in the Berycida. Alisphenoids separate, bridged by the orbito- sphenoid. Hypocoracoids narrowed forward below, not reaching the ventral profile, not embracing the pelvic bones, which are firmly attached to the cleithra above the symphysis. 26 vertebre ; no upturned centra, and the anterior uroneural alkylosed with the last centrum. Abdomen with a median seiies of ridged or serrated scales,

Recent genera are Trachichthys, Shaw, Hoplostethus, Cuv. & Val., Peratrachichthys, Waite, and Gephyroberyx, Bouleng. ‘Lhe Cretaceous Aipichthys, Steind., and Acrogaster, Agass., may be provisionally referred to this family. Sphenocephalus, Agass., shows some resemblance to Tirachichthys, but does not seem to have the abdominal series of ridged scales.

Family 6. Monocentride.

Differs from the preceding only in the large, bony, rigidly united scales, the absence of the first four ribs, and the reduc- tion of the pelvic fin to a spine and 8 soft rays. The trunk- muscles are inserted only on the posterior surface of the skull, and on the upper surface the occipital and parietal crests are converted into ridges bordering mucous channels.

One genus, MJonocentris, Bl. Schn.

Family 7. Anomalopide.

Differs from the Trachichthyide in the absence of mucous channels on the head and in the presence of a peculiar evertible subocular luminous organ.

There is a single example of Anomalops katoptron, Bleek., in the British Museum, and I have ascertained that the nasal bones, the orbitosphenoid, and the supramaxillary are as in the Trachichthyide. ‘There is a median abdominal series of ridged scales and the caudal fin has 17 branched rays. In this specimen the right pelvic fin is absent and the left has only 4 rays; these fins are said to be normally 6-rayed, but authors disagree as to whether the outer ray is spinous or

articulated. Protoblepharon palpebratus, Bodd., which has

been figured by Max Weber (‘ Siboga’ Exped. p. 109, 1902)

Classification of some Teleostean Fishes. 7

seems to have I 6 pelvic rays, and is otherwise very similar to Hoplostethus or Trachichthys.

Family 8. Holocentride.

A long spinous dorsal; anal with 4 spines; caudal with 17 branched rays; pelvics thoracic, of a spine and 5 to 8 soft rays. Jaws and dentition as in the Berycide ; two supra- maxillaries, the posterior large and sending forward a pointed process above the small anterior one ; subocular shelf formed by several suborbitals; nasals moderate, separated by the premaxillary processes, not convergent anteriorly ; a second nasal bone on each side below the nostrils. Frontals large,

Skull of Myripristis murdjan, from above.

tn, infra-nasal ; na, nasal; v, vomer; eth, ethmoid ; soc, supra-occipital ; f, frontal; p, parietal; sp, sphenotic (post-fontal); pt, pterotic (supra-temporal) ; ep, epiotic; ¢, temporal plate; pét, post-temporal.

overlapping the parietals and supra-occipital, which scarcely appear on the dorsal surface of the cranium; no parietal crests; occipital crest not extending on to the frontals, which have a pair of low longitudinal ridges bordering a median groove or channel, and posteriorly a varying number of ridges radiating backwards; trunk-muscles inserted only on poste- rior surface of skull, excavating large posterior temporal fossee, which are roofed by the frontals. Hypocoracoids narrowed forward below, not reaching the ventral profile, not embracing the pelvic bones, which are loosely attached by ligament above the symphysis of the cleithra, Vertebrae 26 or 27; no upturned centra, and the anterior uroneural anky- losed with the last centrum.

8 On the Anatomy &c. of some Teleostean Fishes.

Recent genera are Adioryx, Starks (‘Science,’ xxviii. 1908, p. 614), Holocentrus, Scopoli, Myriprist’s, Cuv. (with toothed maxillary), and Ostichthys, Langsdorff. The Creta- ceous Homonotus, Dixon, seems to be near Myripristis ; the fish described by Dr. Smith Woodward from the Chalk of Kent under the name Trachithyioides ornatus is known only from the skull, which is very similar to that of some recent species of Myripristis, although none of them show the principal frontal ridges quite so far apart posteriorly nor the radiating ridges so few. Dinopteryx, A. 8. Woodward, with seven anal spines, may be provisionally placed in this family.

I propese the new generic name Caproberyx for the fish from the Chalk of Kent described by Dr. Smith Woodward under the name Berycopsis major (Paleontogr. Soc. 1902, p- 11, pl. ii. fig. 2). Of the vertical fins only the anal spines are known, but the head and pectoral arch are well preserved and indicate relationship to the Holocentride. In the short premaxillary processes and the absence of a preopercular spine Caproberyx resembles Myripristis, in the expanded pre- orbital and the weak principal and numerous radiating frontal ridges Holocentrus. Bnt it differs from both in the greater prominence of the occipital crest, which bas the upper edge thickened and longitudinally ridged; in this and in some other features it shows considerable similarity to Antigonia, and it may be that this resemblance is due to real affinity and that Caproberyx is nearest of all the Berycoids to the Zeomorphi.

The Berycomorphi as above restricted do not include the Stephanoberycidze and Melamphaide. ‘These are probably derived from the same stock as the Berycomorphous fishes, resembling them in the structure of the protractile mouth, and in the caudal fin, which has